稀土永磁钕铁硼材料应用前景Application prospect of rare earth permanent magnet Nd-Fe-B materials
现在稀土钕铁硼材料正在渗透到国民经济的各个领域，小到音响、手机、影碟机，大到汽车、机电设备、磁悬浮列车等，钕铁硼永磁材料都展现出巨大的应用前景。Neodymium iron boron is the third generation of rare earth permanent magnet materials. It is called the "king of permanent magnet". Rare earth neodymium iron boron materials appeared in the 1980s. It makes permanent magnet materials get unprecedented reuse in various fields with high strength magnetism and relatively low cost.
(Academician Wang Zhenxi, Institute of physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences: Nd-Fe-B is the third generation of rare earth permanent magnet materials, known as the "king of permanent magnets". Its crystal structure is tetragonal symmetry, which is composed of two neodymium atoms, fourteen iron atoms and one boron atom. It combines the most abundant and spontaneous magnetic iron in nature with rare earth neodymium, which can fix the magnetism of iron in the same direction. This kind of combined NdFeB magnet is not only strong in magnetism and can absorb 1000 times its own weight of iron, but also cheap.)
In 984, the rare earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was successfully developed under the auspices of Academician Wang Zhenxi of the Institute of physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In order to give full play to the resource advantages of China's large rare earth country and promote the transformation of neodymium iron boron research results, the Chinese government has included the development project of "industrialization of high-grade rare earth permanent magnet neodymium iron boron" in the National 863 plan.
The implementation of 863 project "industrialization of high-grade rare earth permanent magnet NdFeB" has greatly promoted the development of sintered NdFeB industry in China. The annual output of sintered NdFeB magnets in China increased from 10 tons in 1985 to 6500 tons in 2000. Now the output of sintered NdFeB magnets in China has reached 40% of the world's total output.
In particular, many high-end products of Sanhuan new materials company of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the largest NdFeB magnet production enterprise in China, which is the achievement industrialization base of the 863 plan, have been exported to Japan, South Korea and Britain, and are developing some high-performance products with independent intellectual property rights. In the ranking of global NdFeB manufacturers in 2000, Sanhuan ranked third with an annual output of 2000 tons. At present, Zhongke Sanhuan company is building a high-grade neodymium iron boron South and North production base, and the annual output will reach 4000 tons after completion.
The implementation of 863 project has not only promoted the development of Nd-Fe-B industry, but also had a positive impact on many related industries. The use of rare earth permanent magnet components can further reduce the size and greatly improve the performance of electrical instruments and electronic products, adapt to the development trend of light, thin and small electronic products, and make it possible to make the permanent magnet components of transport vehicles and electromechanical products more efficient, miniaturized and light.
For example, using Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet instead of the traditional ferrite or Al Ni Co magnet in the loudspeaker can reduce the weight of the loudspeaker by 2-3 times without changing the transmission power, and greatly improve the sensitivity of the loudspeaker.
The application of rare earth NdFeB materials in the development of various motors can significantly reduce the weight of the motor, reduce the overall size of the motor, obtain efficient energy-saving effect and improve the performance of the motor. Combined with the new power electronics technology, the product electromechanical integration can be realized, which plays an important role in the application and development of the motor. Recently, the 1120 kW permanent magnet motor developed by the special television Research Institute of Shenyang University of technology is the largest rare earth NdFeB permanent magnet motor in the world. Its mechanical power is as high as 97.5%, which can replace the ordinary motor with 1-2 power levels higher than it.
Now rare earth NdFeB materials are penetrating into all fields of the national economy, ranging from audio, mobile phones and DVD players to automobiles, electromechanical equipment and maglev trains. NdFeB permanent magnet materials show great application prospects.